Bihar is a state in the Republic of India situated in the eastern most part of the north Indian politico-geographical zone. Its capital has been Patna for almost 2500 years. Bihar is the 12th largest Indian state in terms of geographical size, ranked 14 out of 28 in terms of state GDP (Rs 94251, Crores), and the 3rd largest by population. Bihar has significant food and dairy producing industries, a strong rail & developing road network, two international airports ( Patna, Gaya).Patna remains the richest city in Bihar, with per capita income greater than the Indian average.
Bihar is surrounded by the Indian States of Uttar Pradesh to the west, Jharkhand to the south, West Bengal to the east, and has an international border with Nepal to the north. Bihar lies in the fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Important mineral occurrences in Bihar are limestone in Kaimur (Bhabhua), Munger and Rohtas districts; mica in Nawada district; quartz/silica sand in Bhagalpur, Jamui, Munger and Nalanda districts; quartzite and talc/steatite in Munger district. Besides, bauxite occurs in Munger and Rohtas districts; china clay in Bhagalpur and Munger districts; feldspar in Gaya, Jamui and Munger districts; fireclay in Bhagalpur and Purnea districts; gold in Jamui district; granite in Bhagalpur, Gaya, Jahanabad and Jamui districts; iron ore (hematite) in Bhagalpur district: iron ore (magnetite) in Gaya district; lead-zinc in Banka and Rohtas districts and pyrite in Rohtas district.