Motivation is supply of incentive which encourages an individual towards achievement of a specific goal. Incentives are satisfaction of motives and motives are expression of a person’s needs, wants,. Desires, drives or impulse within that make him act in a particular way. These are the mainsprings of action. In short, it is the activation and direction of energy. Ability and motivation affect work performance. There are various theories of motivation- the most celebrated one is A.H.Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Money can be a powerful force in motivation if and only if it is directly related to achievement and performance. Motivation is different for different people. Yet it is possible to make some generalization about motivation at various occupational levels.
(b)Conciliation in case of labour dispute in mines:
When an industrial dispute is raised by an union in respect of mine workers, the Asst. labour commissioner (central) of the ministry of labour govt. of India takes up the issue of “conciliation”. He calls both the representatives of the management and labour and conciliates to arrive at a mutually agreed settlement. If the conciliation fails, the case is referred to govt. as a failure report. If the case so warrants, the officer recommends for reference of the case to “Labour Court” for adjudication. In the Labour court, the dispute is heard again and decision arrived at. In both the stages ( at the conciliation and Labour court) there is a scope for “arbitration”. If both the parties agree, the matter is referred to an “arbitrator” whose decision becomes binding on both the parties. Industrial dispute can be raised by an union, not by an individual and dispute arises only when there is a violation of the agreement, standing order, unfair labour practice, wrongful dismissal and/or any matter pertaining to disagreement in wages/ incentives/bonus/ leave pay/HTC/LTC etc. at the implementation stage.
(c) Accident proneness:
It is true to say that liability of accident is to a considerable extent determined by the degree of risk to which a workman is exposed, but at the same time, some workers receive more than their share of accidents than others working under the same conditions. This is due to “accident proneness” which is regarded as a set of personal quality which renders some workers more liable to sustain accidents than others. It might be said that we all are accident liable but not all “accident prone”. Psychologists have shown that workmen who had more than their share of minor accidents had also an excess of major accidents. It is difficult to screen this group. Lapse in attention is the vital component, if not the actual cause, of accident-proneness. This lapse may occur due to various reasons. This may be temporary due to tension, anxiety etc. or may be permanent trait which can be detected by series of tests like “attention diagnostic method” developed by an American psychologist-R.Block. In this test, a brightly-lit numbered board is used and the subjects are asked to call out numbers and their colours in sequential order. By this test “accident-proneness” can be screened.