The widely accepted definition of management is a social process and telling responsibilities for the effect and economic planning and regulation of the operations of an enterprise, in fulfillment of a given purpose or task, such responsibility involving:-
(a) judgment and decision on determining plans and in using data to control performance and performance against plans and ,
(b) the guidance, integration, motivation and supervision of the personnel compromising the enterprise and carrying out its operations
A simpler definition is “managing is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized group”.
The first definition implies that management is a skill whereas the second definition specifies that it is an art. By combining these two views E.C. Eyre has suggested the following definition:-
“Management is the art or skill of directing human activities and physical resources in the attainment of predetermined goals”.
Finally management can be defined “as working with people to determine, interpret and achieve organizational objectives by performing the functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling”.
However it is difficult to define the term administration. The term is both a broad and narrow one and is used to describe the activity of implementing policy decision and also to describe the very top functions in public service the notable being that of administration of Indian Prime Minister.
It is perhaps safe to suggest that “administration is a part of management and is rarely taken to be involved in policy making decision. It will certainly be very much concerned in the implementing of policy, but its freedom of function will be limited by the decisions of policy laid down by those charged with the laying down and planning of general objectives.”
basically an organization is a group of two or more persons that exists and operates to achieve the clearly stated commonly held objectives. Objectives or goals- targets to shoot for, states of being or places to be reached through plans and actions. In the words of Plunkett and Attner “the objectives of an organization have to do with providing goods and services to its members or providing them to other outside the organization. In an organization it is quite possible that each member might do parts of the job which each thought important to meet the objectives while in actuality the members might be working in opposite direction. To prevent this occurring and to ensure coordination of work to accomplish the objectives managers are needed”. Management is needed in organizations.