A good selection procedure is built on the goals of a job analysis and recruiting, especially matching job requirements with skills and motives of candidates. Eight different steps are required to be taken to make this match-
Step 1- Job Analysis:
The first step is to perform a job-analysis and determine the exact nature of the position. Managers have to determine the following factors in advance:-
(i) job-duties, responsibilities, scope of authority and reporting relationship,
(ii) suitable reward (or adequate compensation) for the job,
(iii) technical requirements for the job,
(iv) decision making authority and autonomy inherent in the job,
(v) leadership and performance expectation in the job and
(vi) opportunities for advancement.
Information on these six major factors is almost always contained in a job description.
Step 2- Preliminary screening interviews:
This step is concerned with the kind of interview usually conducted on campus with a view to find out how the candidate fits the following requirements:-
(i) specific abilities and potential contributions;
(ii) career goals and aspirations,
(iii) opinions about the industry,
(iv) attitude towards critical job factors e.g. willingness to travel or move frequently and
(v) personal and pecuniary (financial) goals.
Both internal and external candidates should be given preliminary screening interview. This interview may be conducted by manager or personnel specialists, using the informations supplied on the application form.
Step 3- The application form:
The third step is to get information about he candidate’s abilities. The best way of doing this is to have the person fill out a detailed application form along with a resume of relevant experience, the candidates previous growth and progress on the job. The application form duly filled in, also shows, simply by its specifications, a person’s ability to follow instructions and his/her command on the language. This exercise is not necessary for internal candidates. Potential senior managers are often asked to complete intelligence or personality tests.
Step 4- Testing and assessment centers:
The basic purpose of this step is to determine the ability of the candidate to perform the job. Tests vary in their nature and effectiveness. Aptitude tests, performance or achievement tests, personality tests are sought to pinpoint certain specific strengths and weaknesses of the candidates.
Step 5- In-depth interview:
This step is to interview candidates in depth to determine his ability to communicate, character tracts, ability to fit into the company’s culture, exact technical knowledge and experience and motives. Such in depth interviews are extremely important. Managers often find out that candidates, who look too good “on paper” simply fail to come across well personally and have to be rejected. In depth interviews may be “structured” or “unstructured” depending on the flexibility allowed to the interviewer.
Step 6-Reference checks:
Applicants are normally asked to supply personal or work references in the application form. Reference check is necessary to know such qualities as leadership, delegating authority, decisiveness, ability to manage crisis etc. because various tests referred to above have limitations.
Step 7- Physical examination:
The purpose of medical exam is (i) to prevent insurance claim for illness or injury that occurred before joining the company (ii) to detect any contagious disease and (iii) to certify that the person can physically perform the work.
Step 8- Offer of employment:
In this final step, the top ranking applicant is offered job by management. This may involve a series of negotiations relating to starting salary depending on the organization’s policy on wages and compensation.