(1) Morale implies the attitudes and feelings of the workforce towards the management and their work. It is the degree to which the workforce identifies themselves with the goals and the activities of the group they belong. Individual morale is the extent to which an individual’s needs are satisfied and the extent to which the individual perceives that satisfaction as stemming from his total job satisfaction. Therefore an incentive scheme for workers and their supervisors should keep in view these parameters. I would suggest the following incentive scheme:-
(i) for workers:
(a) need satisfaction in terms of wages and other benefits requires a revision in consultation with trade unions, performance reward relationship, quality of work, make-up pay for idleness caused by factors beyond the controls of workers and management may be reviewed
(b) job-enrichment by re-designing the jobs to make them more interesting, safe and challenging (c) worker’s participation by involving them in work -levels decisions as a means of integration and self control. The workers should feel that they are integral part of the organization and become more receptive to change (d) conflict handling and grievance procedure should be simple, humane and prompt for resolving conflicts.
(ii) for supervisors:
(a) performance of each supervisor should be recognized and rewarded for excellence. They should be encouraged to develop leadership/ and supervisor organizing capability by exposing them to special “supervisory development” programme
(b) in important decisions on work process or bringing about any change the supervisors should be taken into confidence
(c) in all negotiations with trade unions the participation of the supervisors should be ensured.
(d) Supervisors should be taught to use persuasion, better communication skill and leadership influence to cultivate proper attitudes on the part of the workers
(e) special awards should be introduced for excellent supervision
(f) the promotion, transfer, placement of supervisors should be fair and impartial.
(2) Steps to create healthy work environment:
(a) Work situation should be free from dust/ fumes, excessive noise, vibration etc.
(b) If work is continued beyond day light adequate artificial lighting should be provided
(c) Machinery to be operated should be designed from ergonomics point of view for proper “productivity”, “operatibility” and “maintainability”.
(d) Haul roads should properly designed with adequate curves and gradient and maintained dust free by water spraying
(e) “Codes of practices” should be evolved to condition the work behavior to maintain safe and healthy work environment
(f) Development of mutual trust, proper understanding and work ethics in inter-personal relationship.