Nagaland is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Myanmar to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur. It has a total area of 16,579 km. – making it one of the smallest states of India.
Nagaland is largely a mountainous state. The Naga Hills rise from the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam to about 2,000 feet and rise further to the southeast, as high as 6,000 feet. Mount Saramati at an elevation of 12,552level is the state’s highest peak – this is where the Naga Hills merge with the Patkai Range in Myanmar. Rivers such as the Doyang and Dhiku to the north, the Barak river in the southwest and the Chindwin river of Myanmar in the southeast, dissect the entire state.
Nagaland is rich in flora and fauna. About one-sixth of Nagaland is under the cover of tropical and sub-tropical evergreen forests – including palms, bamboo and rattan as well as timber and mahogany forests. Nagaland has a largely monsoon climate with high humidity levels. Annual rainfall averages around 70-100 inches – concentrated in the months of May to September. Temperatures range from 70 degrees to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. In winter, temperatures don’t generally drop below 39 degrees Fahrenheit, but frost is common at high elevations.
Important mineral occurrences in the State are coal in Borjan, Jhanji, Disai, Tiesang and Tiru Valley coalfields; iron ore (magnetite) and nickeliferous chromite in Tuensang district; and limestone in Phek and Tuensang districts.