Mizoram is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. Its population at the 2001 census stood at 888,573.
Mizoram is a mountainous region which became the 23rd state of the Indian Union in February, 1987. It was one of the districts of Assam until January 21, 1972 when it became a Union Territory. Sandwiched between Myanmar in the east and south and Bangladesh in the west, Mizoram occupies an area of great strategic importance in the northeastern corner of India. The boundaries with Myanmar and Bangladesh total 722 kilometers.
Mizoram has a mild climate: it is generally cool in summer and not very cold in winter. During winter, the temperature varies from 11°C to 21°C and in summer it varies between 20°C to 29°C. The entire area is under the regular influence of monsoons. It rains heavily from May to September and the average rainfall is 254 cm, per annum. The average annual rainfall in Aizawl and Lunglei are 208 centimetres and 350 centimetres, respectively. Winter in Mizoram is normally rain-free. Mizoram is rich in flora and fauna and many kinds of tropical trees and plants thrive in the area.
Mizoram is a land of rolling hills, rivers and lakes. As many as 21 major hills ranges or peaks of different heights run through the length and breadth of the state, with plains scattered here and there. The average height of the hills to the west of the state are about 1,000 metres. These gradually rise up to 1,300 metres to the east. Some areas, however, have higher ranges which go up to a height of over 2,000 metres. The Blue Mountain, situated in the southeastern part of the state, is the highest peak in Mizoram.
Mizoram has the most variegated hilly terrain in the eastern part of India. The hills are steep (avg. height 1000 metres) and separated by rivers which flow either to the north or south creating deep gorges between the hill ranges. The highest peak in Mizoram is the Blue Mountain (Phawngpui) with a height of 2210 metres.
Occurrences of lignite, sandstone and pyrites are reported from the state. Major deposits of economic importance have not been reported so far in the state.
The present main mineral of Mizoram is a hard rock of Tertiary period formation. This is mainly utilized as building material and for road construction work. However, several reports (both from Geological Survey of India and State Geology & Mining Wing of Industries Department) revealed that the availability of minor mineral in different places.