Madhya Pradesh, often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal. Madhya Pradesh was originally the largest state in India until November 1, 2000 when the state of Chhattisgarh was carved out. It borders the states Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan.
The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundary between the north and south of India. The state is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.
Madhya Pradesh comprises several linguistically and culturally distinct regions, including:
* Malwa: a plateau region in the northwest of the state, north of the Vindhya Range, with its distinct language and culture. Indore is the major city of the region, while Bhopal lies on the edge of Bundelkhand region. Ujjain is a town of historical importance.
* Nimar (Nemar): the western portion of the Narmada River valley, lying south of the Vindhyas in the southwest portion of the state.
* Bundelkhand: a region of rolling hills and fertile valleys in the northern part of the state, which slopes down toward the Indo-Gangetic plain to the north. Gwalior is an historic center of the region.
* Chambal: the north-western region. A mountainous region rich in red, soft, and fragile sandstone. The climate is harsh, and the area is known for murderous pirates who were active in hundreds in the late 1900s.
* Baghelkhand: a hilly region in the northeast of the state, which includes the eastern end of the Vindhya Range.
* Mahakoshal (Mahakaushal): the southeastern portion of the state, which includes the eastern end of the Narmada river valley and the eastern Satpuras. Jabalpur is the most important city in the region.
* Central Vindhya and Satpura region. Which has most of the central Narmada river valley and watershed, and has the highest point in the state – Dhupgarh in Pachmarhi.
Madhya Pradesh state is made up of 48 districts, which are grouped into eight divisions: Bhopal, Chambal, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur, Rewa, Sagar, and Ujjain.
Districts: Anuppur, Ashoknagar, Balaghat, Barwani, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal, Burhanpur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Dindori, Guna, Gwalior, Harda, Hoshangabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Khandwa, Khargone, Mandla, Mandsaur, Morena, Narsinghpur, Neemuch, Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Sheopur, Shivpuri, Sidhi, Tikamgarh, Ujjain, Umaria, Vidisha.
Madhya Pradesh is the only Diamond producing state and is leading producer of Copper conc., pyrophyllite and diaspore. State hosts country’s 68% diaspore, 41% molybdenum ore, 46% pyrophyllite, 32% diamond, 29% copper ore, 17% rock phosphate, 16% each of manganese ore and fireclay and 11% ochre resources.
Important mineral occurrences in the State are bauxite in Balaghat, Guna, Jabalpur, Katni, Mandla, Rewa, Satna and Shahdol districts; calcite in Badwani, Jhabua and Khargaone districts; china clay in Betul, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Gwalior, Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Khargaone, Narsinghpur, Raisen, Satna, Shahdol and Sidhi districts; copper in Balaghat, Betul and Jabalpur districts; coal in Betul, Shahdol and Sidhi districts; diamond in Panna district; diaspore & pyrophyllite in Chhatarpur, Shivpuri and Tikamgarh districts; dolomite in Balaghat, Betul, Chhindwara, Damoh, Dewas, Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Mandla, Narsinghpur, Sagar and Seoni districts; fireclay in Betul, Chhindwara, Jabalpur, Katni, Narsinghpur, Panna, Sagar, Shahdol and Sidhi districts; iron ore(hematite) in Betul, Gwalior, Jabalpur and Katni districts; limestone in Balaghat, Chhindwara, Damoh, Dhar, Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Khargaone, Katni, Mandsaur, Morena, Narsinghpur, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Shehore, Shahdol and Sidhi districts; manganese ore in Balaghat, Chhindwara and Jhabua districts; ochre in Dhar, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Mandla, Rewa, Satna, Shahdol and Umaria districts; quartz/silica sand in Balaghat, Dewas, Dhar, Jabalpur, Khandwa, Khargaone, Morena, Rewa and Shahdol districts; talc/steatite/soapstone in Dhar, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Narsinghpur and Sagar districts; and vermiculite in Jhabua district.
Other minerals that occur in the State are calcareous shales (used in slate pencil) in Mandsaur district; barytes in Dewas, Dhar, Shivpuri, Sidhi and Tikamgarh districts; feldspar in Jabalpur and Shahdol districts; fuller’s earth in Mandla district; gold in Jabalpur and Sidhi districts; granite in Betul, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Jhabua, Panna, Seoni and Shivpuri districts; graphite in Betul and Sidhi districts; gypsum in Shahdol district; lead-zinc in Betul district; molybdenum in balaghat district; potash in Panna district, quartzite in Sehore district; rock phosphate in Chhatarpur, Jhabua and Sagar districts and sillimanite in Sidhi district.
The most valuable and envied among gemstones is Diamond occurrences have been reported from Majhgawan area of Panna district which is the only Diamond producing mine in India. The other bearing areas are the Conglomerate and Alluvial bed of Baghin river basin in Panna and Satna districts.
DOLOMITE I DOLOMITIC MARBLE I DOLOMITIC LIMESTONE I MARBLE
The State has enormous reserves of Dolomite & its variety of varies grade spread over mainly in Balaghat, Chhatarpur, Sagar, Mandla, Narsingpur, Sidhi, Satna, Damoh. Jabalpur, Seam, Jhabua, 8etul, Manpsaur and Khargone districts. Dolomite is mainly used in steel melting shop, manufacture of Refractory bricks. Dolomite of low grade is used for ornamental and building stone Dolomite has various colours varying from milky white to white, grey, greenish white, cream, pink. flash red to green, smoky to green and pale shades, used in cutting and polishing industries.
Granite is the most demanded Dimension stone, which is cut and polished for its use in building and ornaments. The State of Madhya Pradesh is a store house for black (Gabbro, Dolante, Pyroxenite to Peridotite) and multi coloured Granite (granite. Granodiorite and Syenite), which are available in Shahdol, Betul, Seoni, Balaghat, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Datia, and Shivpuri districts. The colour ranges from grayish to greenish black and black for black granite and pink and grey, ruby red of multi coloured granite. There are about 35 cutting and polishing Industries working in the State.
Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of Slate in India Slate is mainly available in Mandsaur district which is being used for manufacture of Slate and Slate pencil.
Flagstone is one of the major building stone present in the State. The Flagstone has beautiful shades of white, red. reddish brown, pinkish, yellow and brown The deposits of Flagstone are spread over Guna, Shivpuri, Datia, Tikamgam, Vidisha, Rewa. Panna, Sagar, Chhattarpur and Neemuch district.
Copper ore is the source of metal copper. In the State, Copper deposits of Malanjkhand in Balaghat district are being exploited by M/s Hindustan Copper Limited, which is the largest open pit in the World. Other occurrences of Copper ore are reported from Belul, Hoshangabad, Chhindwara, Sagar and Damoh districts.
The Rock phosphate deposits of Jhabua and Sagar districts are being mined by the Madhya Pradesh State Mining Corporation Ltd. Which is being used in the manufacture of Fertilizers, in chemical industries as poultry and stock feeds.
The important deposits of Manganese ore lie in Balaghat and Chhindwara districts. Other occurrences are in Katni, Mandla, and Seoni and Khandwa districts. It is a source of metal manganese.
Important deposits of Coal occur in Shahdol, Umaria, and Sidhi. Betul, Chhindwara and Narsingpur districts. Coal India Ltd. is the only agency engaged in the mining and trading of the coal reserves in the State. In lieu of the recent Government policy of Coal for private entrepreneurs can be awarded leases of Coal mining in the areas where Coal India Ltd. is not willing to operate their captive mines.
The Limestone deposits are located in the Jabalpur. Rewa, Satna Mandsaur. Morena Damoh, Sidhi and Dhar districts The major consumer or Limestone is in the Cement industry, There are 7 major Cement plants in the State of all which has produced a total of 37.78 million tonnes of Cement during 2000-2001. Which is 14.74 % of countries productions. Madhya Pradesh is the leading producer-of Cement in the Country.
PYROPHYLllTE I DIASPORE
In the State Pyrophillite Diaspore occur in Chhatarpur. Shivpuri and Tikamgam districts. It is used in refractories, ceramics. Paper, rubber, Potteries, Insecticides, Toys as statues industries.