Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar state on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east.
The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital. Some of the other major cities and industrial centers are Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Sindri, Gumla, Deoghar, Hazaribagh, Ramgarh Cantt, Dhanbad and Chaibasa.
Jharkhand gets is name from the land of “jhari” or shrubs. It is also related to the name ‘Jarakand’, which signifies the movement for the independence of Jharkhand; literally, it means ‘to chop off’. The name Jharkhand was coined by Jaipal Singh, the first tribal leader to start a movement for a separate Jharkhand state.
Jharkhand is famed for its mineral wealth and forestry products.
Jharkhand is one of the leading producers of coal, kyanite, gold, silver, bauxite and feldspar. Uranium ore is being mined and processed by Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. (UCIL). Jharkhand accounts for about 35% rock phosphate, 29% coal, 28% iron ore (hematite), 27% apatite, 22% andalusite, 16% copper ore and 10% silver ore resources of the country.
Important minerals occurring in the state are bauxite in Dumka, Gumla, Lohardaga and Palamu districts; China clay in Dumka, Hazaribagh, Lohardaga, East & West Singhbhum, Sahebganj and Ranchi districts; coal in Bokaro, Deoghar, Dhanbad, Giridih, Godda, Hazaribagh, Palamu, Pakur, and Ranchi districts; copper in Hazaribagh and East Singhbhum districts; dolomite in Garwah and Palamu districts; feldspar in Deoghar, Dhanbad, Dumka, Giridih, Hazaribagh, Koderma and Palamu districts; fireclay in Dhanbad, Dumka, Giridih, Godda, Hazaribagh, Palamu, Ranchi and West Singhbhum districts; gold in East Singhbhum district; graphite in Palamu district; iron ore (hematite) in West Singhbhum district; iron ore (magnetite) in Gumla, Hazaribagh, Palamu and East Singhbhum districts; Kyanite and quartzite in East & west Singhbhum districts; limestone in Bokaro, Dhanbad, Garhwa, Giridih, Hazaribagh, Palmau, Ranchi, East & West Singhbhum districts; manganese ore in East & west Singhbhum districts; mica in Giridih and Koderma districts; ochre in West Singhbhum district; dunite/pyroxenite in East Singhbhum district; and quartz/silicasand in Deoghar, Dhanbad, Dumka, Giridih, Godda, Hazaribagh, Koderma, Palamu, Ranchi, Sahebganj, East & West Singhbhum districts.
Other minerals that occur in the state are andalusite and rock phosphate in Palamu district; apatite, chromite, cobalt, nickel, gold and silver in East Singhbhum district; asbestos in East & West Singhbhum districts; barytes in Palamu and East Singhbhum districts; bentonite in Pakur and Sahebganj districts; garnet and sillimanite in Hazaribagh district; granite in Deogarh, Dhanbad, Dumka, Giridih, Godda, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Koderma, Lohardaga, Palamu, Ranchi and East Singhbhum districts; titaniumminerals in Ranchi and East Singhbhum districts; and vermiculite in Giridih and Hazaribagh districts.
The total reserve of Hematite in Jharkhand region is over 3000 million tones. Out of this total reserves 2000 million tones occur in Chiria, near Monoharpur in the Singbhum district is one of the largest single deposits of the world. The average quality of Chiria deposits 62-63% Fe content which should be judiciously exploited in, phased manner to suit the long term need of our country.
However, the Chiria deposit has the potential to establish a large mine with the production capacity of 10 million tones per annum with the state-of-the-art technology.
Coal is the most important and abundant fossil fuel in India. It accounts for 63% of the countrys energy need.
Almost 100% of prime coking coal, 93% of medium coking coal and about 30% of the semi coking coal or blendable coal reserves are available in Jharkhand. The total reserves of the coal in Jharkhand is of the order 69128 million tones which spread over Jharia, Bokaro, Rajmahal, Hazaribagh and Chatra area.
The availability of prime coking coal in the country is quite meager. Jharia Coal field is the only resources of prime coking coal in the country. The production of prime coking coal from the region is limited. However, comparatively the medium quality coking coal are available in abundance.
There are 22 mines of limestone in Jharkhand having a total reserve of 563 million tones in Palamau, Hazaribagh, Singbhum and Ranchi districts. All grades of lime stone (BF, SMS and Cement grade) are available in these mines.
The Graphite reserve of Jharkhand are mainly located in Palamau district. The most important deposit of Palamau district is located at Sokra, Satbarba, Barwadih area where both flaky and amorphous graphite occur in lumpy form. A reserve of 0.6 million tones with 50 to 60% carbon content has been estimated at Sokra. The deposits of Palamau district are being mined mainly by State Mineral Development Corporation and few private parties.
Granite and ornamental stones
Extensive deposits of granite and ornamental stones such as dolomites, gabber, peridolite, banded hematite jasper and migmatites etc. are also available in this state. Based on the IBM reports, the granite reserved are estimated to be around 19 millions cu.mt.
Jharkhand which is having about 46% of the Mica reserves, continues to be the leading producer of Mica in the country.
Fireclay deposits are available in the coal bearing region of Dhanbad, Hazaribagh, Giridih, Ranchi and Palamau district. Out of the total 703 million tones reserves in the country, Jharkhand has over 47 million tones deposits of fireclay.
Rich deposits of Copper ore occur in East Singbhum region. Hindustan Copper Ltd. Is minning copper ore for its copper plant at Ghatshila for extraction of copper. Copper ore reserves have estimated to be about 110 milllion tones. A large number of Reconaissance Permit application for copper and other base metal are being processed at state level.
|Deoghar, Dhanbad||Coal||Fire Clay, Silver|
|Hazaribagh||Coal||Felspar, Fire-Clay, Lime stone, Mica, Stone-chips|
|Jamtara, Kodarma||Mica, Stone-chips.|
|Palamau||Iron Ore||Fire Clay, Dolomite, Felspar, Graphite, Lime stone, Manganese.|
|West Singhbhum||Iron Ore||Dolomite, Kyanite, Lime stone, Manganese|
|East Singhbhum||Uranium, Copper||Quartzite, Gold, Silver, Steatite, Kaolin, Fire Clay|
|Ranchi||Lime stone, Kaolin|
|Sahibganj||Kaolin, Silica Sand, Stone chips|
|Sarikela Kharswan, Simdega||Stone chips|