Gujarat is a state in western India. Gujarat borders Pakistan to the north west and the state of Rajasthan to the north and northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, Maharashtra and the Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south. Historically, the North was known as Anarta, the Kathiawad peninsula, ‘Saurastra’, and the South as ‘Lata’. The international border with Pakistan is to the north-west. The Arabian Sea makes up the state’s western coast. Its capital, Gandhinagar is a planned city and is located near Ahmedabad, the commercial center of Gujarat.
Gujarat is the sole producer of agate, chalk, perlite and is leading producer of fluorite (conc.), fireclay, clay (others), silica sand, lignite, laterite, petroleum and natural gas and bauxite in the country. State is the sole holder of country’s resources of perlite, 69% of fluorite, 28% of diatomite, 18% of bentonite and 10% of wollastonite resources.
Important mineral occurrences in the state are agate found in Deccan Trap flows in Bharuch district; bauxite in Amreli, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Kachchh, Sabarkantha and Valsad districts; ball clay in Banaskantha, Bharuch, Kachchh and Patan districts; bentonite in Amreli, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Kachchh and Sabarkantha districts ; China clay in Amreli, Banaskantha, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kachchh, Mehsana and Sabarkantha districts; chalk in Porbandar district; diatomite in Bhavnagar district; dolomite in Bhavnagar, Panchmahals and Vadodara districts; fireclay in Bharuch, Kachchh, Mehsana, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat and Surendranagar districts; fluorite in Vadodara and Bharuch districts; fuller’s earth in Bhavnagar and Kachchh districts; gypsum in Bhavnagar, Jamnagar and Junagadh, Kachchh and Surendranagar districts; lignite in Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Kachchh and Surat districts; limestone in Amreli, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kheda, Kachchh, Panchmahals, Porbandar, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat, Vadodara and Valsad disricts; ochre in Banaskantha, Bhavnagar, Kachchh and Patan districts; perlite in Rajkot district; quartz/silica sand in Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Dahod, Kheda, Kachchh, Panchmahals, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat, Surendranagar, Vadodara and Valsad districts and steatite in Sabarkantha district. Other minerals that occur in the state are apatite and rock phosphate in Panchmahal districts; calcite in Amreli and Bharuch districts; copper ore in Banaskantha district; granite in Banaskantha, Mehsana and Sabarkantha districts; graphite in Panchamahals district; lead-zinc and marble in Banaskantha and Vadodara districts; vermiculite in Vadodara district and wollastonite in Banaskantha district.